Sunday, May 24, 2020
If English students are going to memorize irregular verb forms, theyll need to include the verb go. These example sentences offer go in all tenses, including active and passive forms, as well as conditional and modal forms. Youll notice that there are many tenses where there is no form of go. Test your knowledge with the quiz at the end. Basic Verb Form Conjugations Base Form: goPast Simple: wentPresent Participle: goingPast Participle: goneGerund: goingInfinitive: to go Present Tenses Present Simple: Peter goes to church on Sundays.Present Continuous: We are going shopping soon.Present Perfect: Peter has gone to the bank.Present Perfect Continuous: Susan has been going to classes for three weeks. Present Tenses With No "Go" In the present tense, the simple passive, continuous passive, and perfect passive verb forms do not have conjugation for go. Past Tenses Past Simple: Alexander went to Denver last week.Past Continuous: We were going to visit some friends but decided not to go.Past Perfect: They had already gone to the show so we didnt go.Past Perfect Continuous: We had been going to that school for a few weeks when it was chosen as the best school in the city. Past Tenses Missing "Go" As with the present tense, several past tenses lack a version of go, and they are all passive. These are the past simple passive, continuous passive, and perfect passive. Future Tenses Future (will): Jennifer will go to the meeting.Future (going to): Peter is going to go to the show tonight.Future Continuous: We will be going to dinner this time tomorrow.Future Perfect: She will have gone to visit her parents by the time you arrive.Future Possibility: Jack might go out this weekend. Future Tenses Without "Go" There are no future passive go tenses, either using will or going to. Conditional and Modal Tenses Real Conditional: If she goes to the meeting, I will attend.Unreal Conditional: If she went to the meeting, I would attend.Past Unreal Conditional: If she had gone to the meeting, I would have attended.Present Modal: You should go out tonight.Past Modal: They might have gone out for the evening. Quiz: Conjugate With Go Use the verb to go to conjugate the following sentences. Quiz answers are below. In some cases, more than one answer may be correct. Peter _____ to the bank.Alexander _____ to Denver last week.They _____ already _____ to the show so we didnt go.Jennifer _____ to the meeting.If she _____ to the meeting, I will attend.We _____ but decided not to go after all.Peter _____ to church on Sundays.Susan _____ to classes for three weeks.Peter _____ to the show tonight.She _____ to visit her parents by the time you arrive. Quiz Answers has gonewenthad gonewill gogoeswere going to gogoeshas been goingis going to gowill have gone
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Teachers of adults, whether they are corporate trainers or adult education instructors, know that adults learn differently than children and come to the classroom with lots to talk about. These students have life experience and want meaningful conversation, not superficial chit-chat. When discussion is a big part of your reason for being in the classroom, use Table TopicsTM to break the ice and help people engage. Then you can move easily into your planned topic. There are several different versions of Table TopicsTM, each with 135 questions in a four-inch acrylic cube. Pass the cube around and ask your students to pick a card or two, or sort them in advance, choosing the cards that apply to your lesson plan. Pros Great questions that eliminate superficial chatter and start meaningful conversations.Conversation from just one question can last an hour. It takes a long time to work through one cube.The question cards are made of a sturdy cardboard, so theyll stay nice a long time.There are several versions in different categories.The acrylic cube looks modern, and maybe a bit hip, sitting on your coffee table at home or on your classroom shelf. Cons Each cube costs $25, a little hefty for some wallets.If youre a traveling trainer, the cubes are on the weighty side, two pounds each, but the company does make travel versions. Description Four-inch clear acrylic cube.135 conversation-starting questions.A variety of categories from which to choose. Expert Review I picked up my first box of Table TopicsTM on a whim while shopping in one of those funky little shops you see in the artsy parts of any city. A four-inch clear acrylic cube holds 135 cards, each with a provocative question that is sure to inspire lively conversation. I bought the Original cube. It has questions like: What would you most like to do for someone else if you had the money and time?What fashion trend you followed was very cool then, but now looks ridiculous?If you could have any view from your back porch, what would it be? Tim and I still talk about the conversations that were inspired the first evening we opened the cube. He talked about his most memorable meal at Mothers in New Orleans. Were heading back soon to recreate that experience. Since then, Ive purchased the Gourmet and Spirit cubes. The Gourmet cube is fun if youre a foodie like Tim. Its full of questions like: Do you have a food philosophy?To what degree do you eat local, organic, sustainably grown food?Which cooking shows do you watch? Some people can talk about food forever. This cube is for them. The Spirit cube has more questions that I would consider religious rather than spiritual, so there are some I put back without answering, which is usually against my own personal rules, but there are also some very good ones: What makes something sacred?Is there value in suffering?Would you like to know how and when youll die? The Original cube is clearly my favorite. Its scope is broader and its topics are ones more appropriate for a general group of people, especially those who are strangers. In the classroom, unless youre teaching a specific topic covered by Table TopicsTM, Id go with the Original cube. Be sure to check out the Table Topics ice breaker!
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Innocence Lost When God created man and woman, his sole purpose was for them to be fruitful and multiply. Sex was created by God and meant for marriage. Therefore, woman valued their chastity and would not do a disservice to their bodies. Premarital sex should not be practice because it leads to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and loss of innocence. In 1275, England established the age of consent to be 12 to prevent older men from ravishing the young maidens to ensure their chastity remained undamaged until marriage (Age of Consent).Ã¢â¬ Although the age of consent law is confusingÃ¢â¬ the most important matter is to keep our children and young adults safe (Age of Consent) The sexual terrain of the mid-1960s, theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Today, its children who do not have a father in the home and are being raised by their mother or grandparents. The rate of illegitimate births in the United States has risen sharply since the early 1970s. In the 1940s fewer than five percent of the total births were out of wedlock. By the early 2000s, according to statistics compiled by the Center for Health Statistics at the U.S. HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DEPARTMENT , births to unmarried mothers accounted for nearly one-third of all U.S. births(Batten 353-356.) To indulge in premarital sex, leaves a woman heartbroken when the man who fathered the child refuse to take responsibility for that child leaving the child fatherless. In addition to having sex outside of marriage is the sexual transmitted diseases that a young lady or man may contract if they are not using protection. Even though condoms are not always effective at preventing pregnancies or contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV (Warner). Therefore, we should teach are children to hold on to their innocence until marriage. Furthermore, as parents and the community at large we ought to be teaching are children Gods Word because it is not only instructions on how to live in this fallen world it is also for our protection. Although we can teach are children abstinence we must look at the bigger picture that are children and young adults areShow MoreRelatedThe Benefits Of Premarital Sex And Divorce968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdiscuss the emotional benefits of knowing you have someone who loves you and who would take care of you. Children similarly benefit from having married parents as there are more financial resources available to help take care of them and they get to spend more time with at least one parent. Furthermore, it has been found that in addition to contributing to marital instability, premarital sex increases the likelihood that a couple will divorce. Joan Kahn and Kathryn London found that virgin bridesRead MoreEffects of a Non-Traditional Family on Children1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesparents divorce, the children are left with no stability causing them to lose basic concepts of childhood that may carry with them throughout life. Children of divorced parents have less success and happiness creating less productive citizens in our nation. Watching parents take a home from a traditional family lifestyle to a broken home by getting a divorce is very devastating to a childs mental well-being. As Judith Seltzer notes, Recent reviews summarize evidence that children are emotionallyRead More Effects Of A Non-Traditional Family On Children Essay1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesparents divorce, the children are left with no stability causing them to lose basic concepts of childhood that may carry with them throughout life. Children of divorced parents have less success and happiness creating less productive citizens in our nation. Watching parents take a home from a traditional family lifestyle to a broken home by getting a divorce is very devastating to a childs mental well-being. As Judith Seltzer notes, Recent reviews summarize evidence that children are emotionallyRead MoreEssay about The Issue of Sexually Active Young Teens713 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagessignificant problem we should look at is regarding sexually active young teens. It seems that almost every teen is sexually active. They are having sex at such a early age. A question that rings in our minds, is do they truly even know what sex is? Growing up, Catholic teachings instructed myself to wait until marriage. They say premarital sex is a sin. Now, not only are churches teaching abstinence, but, schools as well. Premarital sex is a important growing problem: that usually results in a unwantedRead MorePremarital Sex And Its Effect On Society2946 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagessituation where a young teenage girl has premarital sex due to the influence of her friends and ends up pregnant. Her friends blame her for getting pregnant and her boyfriend leaves her, pregnant and alone. She is ridiculed, talked about and has to walk the halls at school with the evidence under her shirt while her ex walks around like nothing happened. Society views sex as an average thing for people to do when they are single, young and have no responsibilities. Premarital sex is often encouragedRead MoreSex Education Is Not Just About Sex1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Sex education in not just about sex. It includes other sensitive issues like sexual health, sexual reproduction, sexuality and others that parents often feel uncomfortable talking with their childrenÃ¢â¬ (Sex Education in Schools Pros and Cons). Sex education does not start when someone is sexual active, but mostly in Elementry School when the students have no idea what the teacher is saying. However, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world sex is all around from movie posters to magazines. Perhaps teaching children how toRead MoreHiv And Its Effects On The United States1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHalf of all new human immunodeficiency virus, also known as HIV infections in the United States and two thirds of all sexually transmitted diseases (STD) occur among young people under the age of 25 (Starkman, Rajani). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s estimated that by the end of high school, nearly two thirds of AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s youth are sexually active, and one in five has had four or more sexual partners (Starkman, Rajani). Despite these alarming statistics, less than half of all public schools in the United States offer informationRead MoreSexuality And Gender Relationship Values1874 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Sexuality and Gender Relationship Values in Young Adulthood Michelle Moreno Union Institute and University Human Growth and Development CPM 506 Dr. Andrew Vengrove August 16, 2014 Abstract This scholarly paper focuses on sexuality and relationship values in young adulthood. It will draw mostly on the relationship values of gender, marriage, and sexual orientation. Other than for procreation, very little research has been done that has not involved western cultures. Because of this lack ofRead MoreSexuality : The Behavioral And Sociological Theory Essay1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman sexuality is a common phrase for all, and anything, pertaining to the feelings and behaviors of sex for the human race. Sexuality has been a topic that has been discussed and studied for as far back as 1000 years B.C. and is still being studied today. As the discussion of sexuality has progressed through history, theories have been created based on research and experiments that scholars have implemented, based on their own perceptions of human behavior. Out of the many theories that pose to
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Shearwater Adventures is an adventures tour operator in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. It specializes in rafting, canoeing, and kayaking on the Zambezi River. This river is the fourth largest river in the African continent. The company grew to dominate the Ã¢â¬Å"AdventureÃ¢â¬ market in Victoria Falls. As a result of this expansion, Shearwater Adventures became the most well known adventure-tour operator in the continent of Africa. This expansion occurred while the company was under the leadership of Robert Allen who joined Shearwater ten years ago. He began as a photographer with friend Mark Davis taking pictures and videos of the rafting trips. He went on to become Chief Executive Officer (CEO) after DavisÃ¢â¬â¢ departure. Shearwater was number one in the market. Regardless of their dominance in the Victoria Falls area and their position as leaders in the market, Shearwater adventures had to face the competition. They had to continue dominating while maintaining their reputation as a successful and profitable outdoor adventures operators. To achieve their established goals, Allen Roberts and his management team created different strategies in order to compete efficiently and to maintain their leader position. QUESTION 1: The fundamental strategies in 2006: First of all, the company was counting on its name and reputation since the word of mouth played an important role in new sales. Also, the goal of the Shearwater Adventures was to achieve repeat bookings from satisfied customers, maximize profit and increase their market share. Shearwater Adventures established partnerships and acquisitions with leading Tour Operators such as Jenman African Safaris to boost their reputation and to gain business. Acquisitions that have increased their competitive scope and profitability in the long run. Advertising is obviously key to attracting tourists who are confused about their choice concerning an adventure activity. The continuation of an advertising program was primordial for the company. The fundamental fact of their success and strength that made the company is the level of differentiation. Indeed, in comparison to their competitors, Shearwater Adventures differentiate themselves by offering far more activities than the competitors. This allows customers to have a wide range of choices from rafting trips to lion encounters. Meanwhile, most competitors offer more or less 3 options: white water rafting, boating and elephant riding. By offering more than the competitors, Shearwater created a competitive advantage by bringing customers what competitors could not. As a result, Shearwater remains a leader in the market and competitors will have no other choice than to design and create a new adventure. Otherwise, they could also copy Shearwaters products and services. In addition to its several activities, Shearwater offers packages allowing customers to choose from a selection of activities for one price. Through a differentiation strategy, and by distinguishing itself, Shearwater obtained a competitive advantage. This allowed Roberts to maintain his position in the market. As a result of these strategies, from 2004 to 2006 the number of guests increased from 26,351 to 41,868 as well as the revenue. QUESTION 2: Perform a 5-forces analysis of ShearwaterÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive environment. FORCE 1: Rivalry among competing sellers The industry is ranges from around $400 $500 million, however this industry is fragmented: that is to say, it is spread worldwide in relation to areas offering the chance to perform such activities. There are many competitors: Over 40 areas of activities (i. e. kayaking, safari trips, extreme sports). Locations are all over the world and there are over 250,000 operators that compete in the same Ã¢â¬Å"outdoor activityÃ¢â¬ market. Yet, operators, such as Shearwater, focus on the local level when it comes to competing. ZimbabweÃ¢â¬â¢s political and economical instability. Though ZimbabweÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism had declined by 75% and inflation was at 1,200% Shearwater continued to be the market leader in the area with an 80% share market. It had managed to increase sales by 22 and 39% percent in the last couple of years. Shearwater dominates in Victoria Falls and become the most well known adventure tour in all of Africa. Even though Shearwater is the leader, companies have partnered up in acquisitions, associations and networks with other businesses in order to increase their market share. Rivalry among competitors is high. FORCE 2: Threat of New Entry For small businesses to enter the industry, the cost may be as low as $20,000 for a single activity operation. For larger, full-service operations a large entry cost of $200,000 is estimated. It may be difficult to start an operation in the U. S. because of cost of permits and government, state or municipal regulations. However, installing a new company is Southern Africa (for example Zimbabwe and other surrounding countries) is quite feasible for new operators in the market. We must continue to take into consideration the current economical and political instability of Zimbabwe for those organizations attempting to enter this market There is a certain Ã¢â¬Å"Experience CurveÃ¢â¬ path that a new company may experience. It is important for management to be thoroughly aware of every detail concerning operations and financial matters, as well as the local market. This experience may take some time to acquire. On top of that, a new competitor should realize that it would be competing with other brands (especially Shearwater) that have an already established notoriety, a client list and advertising distributors. Threat of entry is relatively moderate. FORCE 3: Threat of Substitute Products This is an Ã¢â¬Å"Outdoors/ Extreme ActivitiesÃ¢â¬ Market. The necessary ingredients to create this service involve irreplaceable factors such as: waterfalls, natural water rapids, mountains, fresh air, nature, scenery, etc. There are new activities that may be though of, however those would go directly into competition, and would not be considered as substitutes. Threat of Substitute Products is low. FORCE 4: Bargaining Power of Suppliers The nature of the service supplied is not a commodity, and cannot be reproduced or duplicated. Even though suppliers reach the 250,000 mark worldwide, these operators are vastly spread out concerning the nature of the activity. White water rafting for instance, requires a location with a water body, waterfalls, rapids, wild outdoors settings and beautiful sceneries, among other things. The company can only go as far as supplying the equipment needed to ride these waters. The only way operators may integrate backwards is if they decide to produce their own equipment and trained professionals. However, this would only be a good strategy if the costs were less than what they already pay to suppliers. Given the type of activity offered, there is a small chance of supply shortage. The Bargaining Power of Suppliers is moderately high. FORCE 5: Bargaining Power of Buyers The demand for this industry is moderately sized. The target age in the industry was from mid 40Ã¢â¬â¢s to early 50Ã¢â¬â¢s. These people had the drive to stay Ã¢â¬Å"young at heartÃ¢â¬ and the available income to fulfill these desires. Until recently, the media has created an awareness of adventurous locations, and their desire to explore them increased. They may only integrate backwards by buying their own equipment and training themselves on outdoor skills. However, since most of the consumers are over the age of 40, this seems to be a bit of a challenge. Although Shearwater advertised locally and partnering with tour operators, the local community seems to have a certain amount of power over the promotion of this company. It has progressively gained notoriety, and Roberts should be mindful that should he upset the community, they may bad mouth his business. The Bargaining Power of Buyers is moderate. QUESTION 3: What are the KSFs for competing in the Extreme Adventure Sporting Industry? There are several variables that have had a direct impact on the effectiveness of ShearwaterÃ¢â¬â¢s business. The specific factors that underlie the success of Shearwater Adventures are: Brand Recognition. The company relied on its name to achieve their goal of repeat bookings, and cooperation with other companies (e. g., tour operators) for cross-selling opportunities could offer them a higher probability to gain exposure and business. Strong Leadership Management: Mike Davis and Allen Roberts were excellent entrepreneurs. Their leadership, particularly RobertsÃ¢â¬â¢ role as ShearwaterÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO after Davis left, played a critical role in enabling Shearwater to dominate the outdoor adventure market. Favorable Destination: Opening an outdoor adventure company in the United States is difficult due to the cost of permits, so opening an adventure operation in South Africa was more attractive and cost-effective. Strategic Partnerships: Strategic partnerships played an important role in ShearwaterÃ¢â¬â¢s successful growth, since Ã¢â¬Å"Industry leaders were partnering through acquisitions, organized associations, and reseller networks in order to increase repeat bookings from satisfied customers. Ã¢â¬ Strategic Advertising Marketing: Their goal was to target and direct customers at the start of their vacation. Shearwater engaged in intense local advertising to attract a large number of newly arriving tourists who had not chosen an adventure. This allowed it to attract a large share of newly arriving, non-committed tourists. Variety of Activities Offered: Larger variety of outdoor adventures activities was a strong differentiation for Shearwater. Most competitors had a limited number of activities, making Shearwater superior in the local market. Companies that could offer a variety of activities had a much higher probability of gaining repeat business. Pricing Strategy: Bundling activities that allowed customers to choose from a selection of activities for one price was highly attractive and added to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value and success. Cross-Selling Opportunities: ShearwaterÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion into related business activities, like tourist transportation, lodging, and video photos, allowed the company to cross-sell and increase its sales revenue through these related business segments. Community Support: Support from locals was also an important reason for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success, as it added credibility to the company. It enabled smooth operations for Shearwater, increased its reputation, and thus increasing its strength in the industry. Skilled Qualified Team: Through Allen RobertsÃ¢â¬â¢ leadership, he continued to build a solid management team due to his knack for attracting the right person for the right job. These 10 Key Success Factors have contributed to the growth and success of Shearwater Adventures, and has continued to make them a current market leader in the outdoor adventures industry in the Victoria Falls area. 4. SWOT Analysis Strengths: Located in the touristic area of the Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe Shearwater is considered to be the giant leader of the area (with 80% market share), in fact leader of all Africa. Company driven by a knowledgeable and experiencedÃ manager, Allen Roberts Ã¢â¬Å"Industry imageÃ¢â¬ , extreme sports are seen as a way to enjoy time away from hectic lives (average age of customers between 40s and 50s) Shearwater Adventures LTD. offers a wider range of activities then competitors (at least 11 activities against 3 for competitors) Possibility to organize both individual trips and packages (e. g. Ã¢â¬Å"Ticket to AdventureÃ¢â¬ package, where you can make huge savings and choose what you want to do and when) Strong local level awareness, Ã¢â¬Å"Word Of MouthÃ¢â¬ has helped increase sales Entertainment Media helps increase popularity of the industry (Fear Factor, ESPN, Survivor etc. Improved equipment quality Weaknesses: Although Shearwater Adventures have 80% of the market share, competition is tough enough for company to worry about continuing market domination while maintaining its reputation as a Ã¢â¬Å"successful outdoor adventures operatorÃ¢â¬ The company clearly has a tight budget, Ã¢â¬Å"Roberts and his management team had already cut ShearwaterÃ¢â¬â¢s expenses to the bone and had given up their company cars for motorbikesÃ¢â¬ . Weak global level awareness, as companies looked to grow their market share and increase customer base on a local level (global level seemed ore of an obstacle) It appears that outdoor activities companies must deal with aging equipment and older owners when company reaches its maturity Opportunities: The Shearwater Adventures LTD. can link up with international travel companies for purposes such as gaining international awareness and prepaid guaranteed reservation Implement a better advertising plan for repeat bookings and cross-selling Maybe the business should consider acquiring other companies? Creating a new venture to attract a younger crowd Threats: ZimbabweÃ¢â¬â¢s economical and political instability has caused a 75% decrease of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism and inflation was 1200% causing prices to double every 22 days Competitors might offer a wider range of activities as it is relatively inexpensive and there are enough ventures to copy Shearwater or add new adventures 5. Provide recommendations concerning Shearwaters future strategy As we know Shearwater is already the leading company in the adventure/extreme industry for the contient, logically, the main question will be how to improve when you are already the number one or at least, how to stay number one? Buying Companies the idea of buying companies was from Allen Roberts himself and was, from my point of view, one of the most intresting. Buying companies allow you to kill the competition (within the area) and in the meantime to increase your market share by absorbing the competitors. In the other hand Shearwater will need a substantial amount of money for this type of investments, money that they may not be able to collect. Despite the financial factors, integrating competitors to the company will allow Mr Roberts to create his own rivalry in the Victorias fall area, allowing to expend, generate more revenues while controlling the all business. Targeting Market Segment The actual targeted segment, people who are Ã¢â¬Å"mid 40s to early 50Ã¢â¬ are certainly interested in lion encounter or safary but maybe less by more extreme sports such as kayaking or rafting. By focusing on this market segment they completely forget generation who grew up witth that kind of sports. Enhance by the media and famous energy drinks ( https://www. youtube. com/watch? v=mFo-HKKOsXchd=1 ) adventure or extreme sports have become a very important trend for the 20-30 years old. It would be a shame to miss such an opportunity to increase the market share when the only effort you have to make is to make people aware of your complex. Developing the companys assets A wide range of activities, affordables prices, but do they really focus on the essential? People around 50 are attracted by this healthy way of living so why dont they develop a healthy/fitness programme. Mixing sports and dietetic/healthy food as it is the trend nowdays. This strategy is using the current assets of the company in a different way that could be a lot more appealing for customers. Worldwide vision Advertising on a local/national level would be useless for Shearwater as it is already recognize as the number one. What they neeed is a worldwide vision, let people know that they are providing one of the best experience in the adventur industry, and if people are not interested in sport why wont they come for the location in itself. The use of new type of communication such as facebook twitter or threw sponsors (Red bull, Monsters.. ) have already helped the cause of extreme sports and pointed out the fact that people are more than intrested in that kind of leisure. Be a precursor In every single industry, leading companies overcome difficulties by creating their own product and/or creating the demand. In the past few years a lot of new sports have immerged, creating one, could be the chance of an international recognition and healthy finance. Their status of number one is not immutable, they should use their monopoly on the market to create what they think would be the adventure industry of tomorrow. As a reminder, the main question of the case study was Ã¢â¬Å"how to continue to dominate the market while maintaining the reputation as a successful outdoor adventures operatorÃ¢â¬ . The difficulty of chosing a strategy is emphasis by their status of number one, with no comparable company all over the continent the only reasonable choice seems to completely create the wanted path. They got the recognition, the infrastructures as well as a strong leadership. By having a step ahead of the competitions they can maintain their reputation but for how long? To conclude, strenghen by their position, they should choke the competition by redifining what aventure industry means in their own words.
Friday, April 3, 2020
This paper reflects upon how I believe the application of psychoanalysis can become an integral part of Christian counseling.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Counselling Theory of Freudian Psychoanalysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The foremost idea that is being explored throughout the paper is that, even though the theory of psychoanalysis appears to contradict a number of Biblical conventions; it nevertheless correlates with the overall spirit of Christianity, as a thoroughly humanistic religion. The legitimacy of this suggestion is being illustrated with discursively appropriate references to Bible. The counseling approach that I will discuss in this paper is based upon the theory of Freudian psychoanalysis. The reason I choose this particular theory is that, despite the fact that a psychoanalytical approach to counseling is being commonly assumed inconsistent with Bible, it nevertheless does adhere to the overall spirit of Christianity, as a religion that stresses out the foremost cause of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional suffering, as a result of their souls lacking Ã¢â¬ËwholesomenessÃ¢â¬â¢. Throughout the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s consequential parts, I will aim to explore the validity of this thesis at length. The psychoanalysisÃ¢â¬â¢s key concepts can be outlined as follows: The observable subtleties of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s positioning in life reflect their ability to exercise a rational control over the workings of their unconscious. The cause of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mental anxieties is the fact that their ego (rationale-based reasoning) often proves incapable of addressing an incompatibility between the unconscious drives of id (primeval urges) and superego (cognitively absorbed and necessarily restrictive moral standards of a particular society). The formation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is being reflective of how the specifics of his or her upbringing caused the concerned individual to choose in favor of a particular manner of suppressing its socially inappropriate (sexual) unconscious urges (Jones Butman, 1991). The psychoanalysis-based therapyÃ¢â¬â¢s foremost goal is to uncover the essence of patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ deep-seated irrational anxieties/urges, which in turn is supposed to empower them, within the context of how they go about attaining the sensation of an emotional comfortableness with their sense of self-identity. Even though that from a Christian point of view, there is indeed a number of discursive controversies to the theory of psychoanalysis, there can be little doubt as to the fact that it was specifically the process of people becoming ever more self-knowledgeable (wise), which predetermined the psychoanalysisÃ¢â¬â¢s emergence, in the first place (Hoffman, 2007).Advertising Looking for critical writing on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And, according to Bible, there is not hing Ã¢â¬ËsinfulÃ¢â¬â¢ about peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s strive to acquire wisdom. In fact, Bible endorses such peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavor, Ã¢â¬Å"Get wisdom, get understandingÃ¢â¬ ¦Wisdom [is] the principal thing; [therefore] get wisdom: and with all thy getting get understandingÃ¢â¬ (Proverbs, 4: 5-7, King James Version). Therefore, the psychoanalysis-based counseling can be referred to as such that is being thoroughly consistent with how Bible addresses the very notion of enlightenment. The psychoanalytical model of personality stresses out the fact that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s existential stance never ceases being affected by the workings of his or her unconscious. In their turn, these workings reflect the specifics of the concerned individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual stages of development, commonly referred to as oral, anal and phallic. Ever since their early years, individuals get to be endowed with a number of libidinal drives, which prompt them to unconsciously seek sensual pleasures. The quali tative subtleties of how people seek sensual pleasures are being spatially reflective of the maturing process, on their part. In turn, this process become affected by the socially constructed obstacles of the way of growing individuals exploring their libidinal urges Ã¢â¬â hence, strengthening the acuteness of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s inadequateness-related anxieties. Consequently, the unconscious feeling of being inadequate, in terms of how one goes about exploring its sexuality, causes the concerned individual to experience the sensation of an irrational guilt. As a mean of lessening the severity of this emotionally disturbing sensation, he or she often resorts to acting in a particularly aggressive manner. Thus, the psychoanalytical model of personality presupposes the existence of dialectically predetermined links between what accounts for the essence of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s latent sexual anxieties, on the one hand, and the socially observable particulars of their behavior, on the other. I n other words, in the social context of this word, the theory psychoanalysis refers to the knowledge of sexuality, as a foundation for all other types of knowledge. Such point of view is being consistent with Biblical perspective on the importance of sexuality. After all, Bible does refer to the act of a sexual intercourse as such that entails both partners with the rudimentary knowledge of everything.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Counselling Theory of Freudian Psychoanalysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As McClelland (1959) noted, Ã¢â¬Å"In Hebrew the word for Ã¢â¬ËknowingÃ¢â¬â¢ (yada) can have a sexual connotation as is illustrated by the English translation of the verse Ã¢â¬Ëand Adam knew Eve his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦ in Biblical tradition, Ã¢â¬ËknowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢ is intimately associated with sexual knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (p. 47). Therefore, theologically speaking, there is nothing wrong abo ut the psychoanalysisÃ¢â¬â¢s actual subject matter. The psychoanalytical approach to counseling presupposes that the extent of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s healthiness is being reflective of the extent of his or her cognitive/perceptional self-awareness. That is, the more a particular individual is being capable of understanding the innermost cause of its mental anxieties, the more he or she will be capable of effectively addressing them. In its turn, this state of affairs implies that it is only people capable of counter-balancing their emotionally destructive libidinal urges with the sheer strength of their commitment to leading thoroughly enlightened lifestyles, which may enjoy mental and physical well-being, in the first place. In other words Ã¢â¬â the actual key to healthiness is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to address life-challenges in a thoroughly responsible and yet natural manner, without becoming preoccupied with too much of a self-reflecting thinking, Ã¢â¬Å"Be not righteous over much; nei ther take thyself over wise: why shouldest thou destroy thyself? Be not over much wicked, neither be thou foolish: why shouldest thou die before thy time?Ã¢â¬ (Ecclesiastes, 7: 16-18). This once again suggests the theory of psychoanalysis being compatible with Christianity. One of the foremost triggers of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mental abnormality psychoanalysts consider such an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s prolonged exposure to the socially and very often religiously enforced rules of a Ã¢â¬ËmoralÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior. After all, it does not represent much of a secret that a considerable bulk of these rules are being concerned with establishing preconditions for the observable manifestations of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality to be considered shameful and consequently Ã¢â¬â the subject of a societal repression.Advertising Looking for critical writing on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In its turn, this explains the mechanics of how seemingly healthy individuals grow ever more mentally unstable, Ã¢â¬Å"The goal of (sexual) repression is Ã¢â¬Ëkeeping something out of consciousnessÃ¢â¬â¢. But that which was banished retains its attached affect; rather than fade away, that affect and the energy it represents continually press upward, attempting to return to consciousnessÃ¢â¬ (Volney, 1982, p. 154). Therefore, through the psychoanalysisÃ¢â¬â¢s conceptual lenses, the root of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological anxieties appears to be socially upheld moralistic dogmas. In this respect, psychoanalysts could not agree more with Jesus, who never skipped an opportunity to criticize PhariseesÃ¢â¬â¢ hypocritical commitment to following the outdated principles of a religious morality, as a main prerequisite of salvation, Ã¢â¬Å"Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselvesÃ¢â¬ (Mathew 23:15). After all, it is a well-known fact that the majority of notorious sexual predators/serial killers have been brought up in strongly religious families, while being continually indoctrinated to believe that a mere mentioning of male or female genitals constitutes a great Ã¢â¬ËsinÃ¢â¬â¢. The role of psychoanalytical psychotherapy is best discussed within the context of how its practical application may help patients to improve the state of their emotional well-being. The actual process of psychotherapy is being concerned with patients attending councilorÃ¢â¬â¢s office and reflecting upon a number of response-provocative subject matters, mentioned by the councilor (Murdock, 2009). In this respect, the application of free association and dream analysis techniques comes in particularly handy. By being exposed to how patients construct consciousness-free associations, councilors are able to pin point the subliminal causes of em otional anxieties, on their part. The same can be said about the technique of dream analysis. According to Freud, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams serve the function of satisfying his or her unconscious urges by the mean of providing them with a semi-conscious form. Therefore, while analyzing the content of a particular patientÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams, councilors gain an in-depth insight as to what could be considered the possible triggers of the counseled individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mental inadequateness. Even though that, as it was mentioned earlier, a psychoanalytical approach to counseling presupposes that it is possible to Ã¢â¬ËdisassembleÃ¢â¬â¢ oneÃ¢â¬â¢s soul down to its integral components, which contradicts Christian conceptualization of soul, as something that simply cannot be Ã¢â¬Ëtaken apartÃ¢â¬â¢, the sheer effectiveness of psychoanalytical therapies cannot be doubted. In its turn, this allows us to conclude that the fact that there are indeed a number of inconsistencies between Bible and psychoanalysis simply reflects the limited scope of Biblical themes and motifs. This, however, does not make Holy Book any less credible. Alternatively, it does not make the theory of psychoanalysis any less credible, as well. After all, Jesus himself provided us with a number of allegorical instructions as to how evil may be distinguished from good, Ã¢â¬Å"Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither [can] a corrupt tree bring forth good fruitÃ¢â¬ (Mathew 7: 17-18). Given the fact that, as we pointed out earlier, the practical application of psychoanalysis, throughout the course of history, did help many people to get rid of their life-impending anxieties, there can be few doubts that this particular approach to counseling is indeed being in favor with God. It is understood, of course, that the application of psychoanalysis, as a part of providing patients with Christian couns eling, may be deemed inappropriate. At the same time, however, there are many objective reasons to believe that this practice is being thoroughly attuned with ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s ongoing transformation from being concerned with strictly theological issues to being concerned with how peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to Bible can help them to enjoy a high-quality living (Lines, 2002). Even though that, as of today, psychoanalytical counseling is being assumed rather unaffordable by many patients; there is no good rationale in believing that this will continue being the case into the future. After all, an ongoing progress in the field of counseling has now attained a clearly defined exponential momentum. This is another reason why I think it is being only the matter of time, before Christianity and psychoanalysis will cease being regarded mutually incompatible. I believe this conclusion is being thoroughly consistent with the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s initial thesis. References Hoffman, M. (2007). From libido to love: Relational psychoanalysis and the redemption of sexuality. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35 (1), 74-82. Holy Bible: King James Version. (1996). New York: American Bible Society. Jones, S. Butman, R. (1991). Modern psychotherapies: A comprehensiveÃ Christian appraisal. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. Lines, D. (2002). Counseling within a new spiritual paradigm. Journal ofÃ Humanistic Psychology, 42 (3), 102-123. McClelland, D. (1959). Religious overtones in Psychoanalysis. Theology Today, 16 (1), 40-64. Murdock, N. (2009). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approachÃ (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Volney, G. (1982). Repression and sublimation in religious personalities. JournalÃ of Religion and Health, 21 (2),152-170. This critical writing on Counselling Theory of Freudian Psychoanalysis was written and submitted by user Samiyah Suarez to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Poor parenting revealed in mary shelley's frankenstein Essays Poor parenting revealed in mary shelley's frankenstein Poor Parenting Revealed in Mary Shelley?s Frankenstein Upon giving birth to a child, it is expected of the parents to teach and raise them with good morals. It is assumed that parents demonstrate both love and affection towards their infant. However, there are instances in which some parents neglect their children, which is what the main character, Victor did in the novel Frankenstein. In Mary Shelley?s novel Frankenstein, Victor demonstrates how the neglect of his creation translates into havoc and violence of those in his life. These two aspects are caused because of the mistreatment that Victor displayed to his ?child?. He wasn?t aware of how dangerous this ?child? could come out to be since it was not raised appropriately. This led to the ?child?s? insufferable loneliness and anger. Displaying neglect towards an infant leaves them emotionally and mentally unstable. In the novel, Victor?s neglect towards his creation, the Creature, caused his affliction. This act of disdain occurred because Victor was displeased with the appearance of his offspring. Victor calls him out on being a ?Devil? and even questions him, ?Do you dare approach me? And do you not fear the fierce vengeance of my arm wreaked on your miserable head? Begone, vile insect!? (page 68). No parent should ever behave this way towards their child. Victor traumatizes his ?child? causing a mental toll on him by calling him names and telling him to go away. The Creature believes what he is told since he sees it for himself, ?But how terrified was I, when I viewed myself in a transparent pool!? (pg 80). The Creature now seems to understand why others have shown disregard towards him. He now realizes that his neglect is because of his guise. According to article 18, ?Unwanted and Un-intended Long Term Resu lts of Overindulging Children? by Dawson and Bredehoft, ?It is difficult to be happy unless one looks good?. This is thought out to be because of overindulgence in children, which is a form of child neglect; it was the main reason why the Creature went about creating chaos. He committed murders to get revenge on Victor because of the neglect he showed towards him and his appearance. This was a type of emotion that the Creature displayed to let out his anger on his guise. It?s believed that a person who is crestfallen with their appearance tends to have a ?low self-esteem, and a sense of shame surrounding the parent?s absence? (?Effects of Abandonment?, Wolf). Since Victor neglected his creation due to his appearance he was never there for the Creature. Showing negligence towards a child can be traumatizing. If it is not stopped, it leads to unnecessary repercussions and is the easy way out towards abandonment. When a child encounters abandonment, the outcome will be negative because they did not receive the necessary love and affection from their parent. The child will be in a state of desolation and question their abandonment. Due to Victor?s forsaking of the Creature, leads to the Creature questioning him, ?Have I not suffered enough, that you seek to increase my misery? I was benevolent and good; misery made me a fiend? (pgs. 68-69). The Creature appears to be miserable because he was left derelict. This question is an effect from child abandonment, it ?Left the Creature with lingering question about his self worth? (Effects of Abandonment in Children by Jennifer Wolfe). He cannot understand why his ?parent? would want to make him suffer more than he already has. The Creature was an altruistic being before, but because of his abandonment it caused him to undergo this state of misery. When helping a child to cope with abandonment it is advised to, ?Reassure the child that they did not do anything to cause their parent to leave? (Coping with the Effects of Child Abandonment by Stacy Hensley). In this case, Victor did not demonstrate this action towards the Creature. The Creature is aware that his abandonment is because of his appearance, which is what ignited Victor to forsake him. Due to Victor?s carelessness of the Creature it created a negative impact on him along with a lack of love and affection. These components were an
Friday, February 21, 2020
Oculocutaneous Albinism - Literature review Example Albinism is a typical hereditary skin disease with varied clinical presentation and inheritance. It is mostly present from birth and increases the risk of cancer. It is not curable and there is no specific treatment. It can be a part of syndromes which cause bleeding diathesis and recurrent infections (Okulicz, 2002). In this article, a specific type of albinism, the oculocutaneous type will be discussed. Albinism Albinism is a group of disorders that are hereditary in nature and are related to abnormality in the synthesis or distribution of melanin (Okulicz, 2002). The abnormality of pigmentation manifests in eyes with or without involvement of skin and hair (Park et al, 2012). Thus, clinically, there are 2 categories of albinism. They are ocular albinism where in eyes are involved and skin involvement is either absent or minimal, and oculocutaneous albinism in which skin and eyes are involved. Oculocutaneous albinism may be defined as "a group of congenital heterogeneous disorders in which there is either complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes because of the absence of or a defect in an enzyme involved in the production of melanin" (Park et al, 2011). In both the conditions, the primary morbidity is related to the eye. The pattern of inheritance in albinism is variable. While the ocular albinism is through autosomal recessive or sex-linked inheritance, oculo-cutaneous albinism is autosomal recessive (Park et al, 2012). ... In patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, easy bruising is seen and in those with Chediak-Higashi syndrome, recurrent infections are noted. In X-linked ocular albinism, decreased hearing is seen (Okulicz, 2002). As far as discoloration of eyes, skin and hair is concerned, the range of depigmentation is variable and depends on the type of albinism. The color of the iris is usually blue and can even be brown. The iris will have transillumination defects. The fundus also, in general, is hypopigmented. To broadly classify, there are 2 forms of albinism. The classification is based on the tyrosinase hair bulb incubation test which differentiates between the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative forms. In those who are tyrosinase-positive, some degree of production of pigments occurs. In those who are tyrosinase-negative, there is absolutely no pigment production (Okulicz, 2002). Oculocutaneous albinism There are four types of oculocutaneous albinism or OCA (Okulicz, 2002). OCA typ e 1A is the classic tyrosinase negative type of OCA. In this condition, the infant is born with blue-grey irides, pink colored skin, white hair and predominant red reflex (Wei et al, 2011). The individuals have manifestations of the defects of eye as discussed above. They never develop pigmented lesions like freckles, naevi or lentigines. Hair becomes yellow with age due to denaturation of the keratin following exposure to ultraviolet light. In type1B, the presentation features at birth are similar to those in type 1A. However, as the age advances, the hair color darkens to brown color. The skin can get tanned on exposure to sunlight and can even develop pigmented lesions like naevi and freckles. The